Bute Stone - Description, Characteristics, Application and Features :: Syl.ru

Dog stone is a fairly common building material. Today, thanks to its technical qualities and characteristics, it is widely used in construction and finishing works, as well as in landscape design. On the main properties of boob stone, prices and the use of material we will gladly tell you in this article.

What is Booth?

Dog stone is the wreckage of the mountain rocks of the wrong shape. The diameter of such pieces is usually 25-50 cm, and the weight is no more than 50 kg. As a rule, the brown stone is obtained from sufficiently strong sedimentary rocks, the density of which exceeds the figure of 1800 kg / m 3. Most often it is limestone, sandstone or dolomite (less often - tuff, a diorit or a seven).

cheek stone per cube

Booth used for construction purposes should not have any cracks and bundles. In addition, its "purity" is also extremely important (the number of clay or mergel impurities in the breed should not exceed 2%). By the way, the purity of the boot is determined by the sound tone. The beserves and smoke the stone sounds during a hammer on it, the factory is its structure.

From the booth produce so-called beds, decorative plates and panels. The brownstone is also processed into crushed stone.

Main characteristics

The brown stone is highlighted by certain physical and technical properties. It:

  • Strength (the most durable is the brands of M1200-M1400 Booth).
  • Frost resistance (in the coldest climatic conditions, the F300 and F400 brands are used).
  • The average and high seal coefficient (depends on the size of the fractions).
  • The proportion (depends on the specific rock formation, on average one cubic meter of butte stone weighs about 2-3 tons).
  • Volumetric weight (separate pieces of boot rarely weigh more than 50 kg).
  • Bulk density (on average hesitated within 1.3-1.9 tons / m 3).

Pros and cons of building materials

The main advantages of boob stone include the following qualities:

  • Ecology.
  • Durability.
  • High resistance to mechanical, chemical and biological impacts.
  • The relative cheapness (especially in those areas where the extraction and the production of stone is established).
  • Attractive appearance.
  • Difostern textures and paint.
Decorative Booth

Perhaps the main disadvantage of this building material is a high laboriousness of work. Laying of boob stone requires a certain skill. In addition, you need to know how to make a reliable solution for fastening individual pieces. On the other hand, it does not always need heavy equipment for working with boot. For example, for the facing of the outer walls or laying tracks in the garden of several more workers.

Deposit and mining

The brown stone is usually removed from the earth's crust open (career) method. For mining use two main ways:

  1. Explosive - applied when mining granite, sandstone or limestone.
  2. Sawing - used for the production of boot from softer rocks.

The mined stone is transported by car carriages, and to the place of direct construction is brought by heavy vehicles.

Industrial development of boot is carried out almost everywhere. In Russia, the largest deposits are located in the Urals, in Moscow, Kemerovo, Rostov regions, as well as in some areas of Siberia. Bite stone brands are separated in composition, strength and shape of debris. A stone that does not correspond to generally accepted standards is grinding into crushed stone.

Application

The brownstone is widely used in modern construction. From it, in particular, the following objects are erected:

  • Foundations of buildings.
  • Various engineering facilities (retaining walls, counterphorts, fences, etc.).
  • Hydraulic structures (wells, channels and others).
  • Fences.
  • Small architectural forms (parapets, rotunda, obeliski, benches, fountains, bridges).
Dog stone with your own hands

In addition to various structures and fences, beautiful alpine slides in parks and botanical gardens form from the butt stone. They often spawn the grounds of residential buildings, the roads and sidewalks are laying out of it.

Main varieties

You can select four types of boob stone:

  1. Industrial.
  2. Decorative.
  3. Bedroom.
  4. Rounded.

Industrial Booth is fragments of rock rocks obtained as a result of explosive career works and further crushing. From this building material, river dams are built, dams, supports of bridges and foundations of industrial buildings. Optimal breeds for obtaining industrial bout - limestone and sandstone.

Decorative boot are stones of 15 to 30 cm in size in diameter, which have passed special processing. A distinctive feature of this type of boob stone is a form resembling a disk. It is mined solely manually and is used in decorative purposes.

Postedy Booth has the form of parallelepiped and very similar to ordinary brick. The thickness of such plates usually exceeds 7 centimeters. The main spheres of the application of stagnation bout are the construction of fences and finishing of the base parts of buildings.

Rounded Booth is used mainly for the paving roads and sidewalks, as well as in the design of flower, lawns, fountains and decorative reservoirs. It is extracted from the bottom of the rivers and is distinguished by rounded smooth outlines. The people are also often referred to as a cobblestone.

What is the price of a boob stone (per cube)? And from which factors will the cost of its cost? We will tell about it further.

Cheek stone: Price

Booth is considered a relatively cheap building material. That is why fences, retaining walls, foundations and individual buildings often erected from it. For the Cube of Boob Stone (usual) will have to lay out from 2000 to 5,000 rubles. Decorative Booth is much more expensive - from ten to fifteen thousand rubles.

Cheled stone price

There are several factors for the cost of the butte stone. First of all, the density of the breed. What it is higher - the higher the cost. The appearance of the stone (in particular, the color and texture) plays far from the latter role. The ultimate cost of building materials also significantly affects the complexity of raw materials production and its delivery price.

Laying with your own hands

Dog stone as an affordable and sufficiently durable natural material at all times was actively used by man. For modern construction, stones are selected by weight up to 30 kg. If the pieces are too big, they will be previously crushed into smaller parts, parallel to the rocking all sharp corners.

The laying of the butt stone is performed using the same tools as the brickwork, but with the addition of only one specific tool - weighting sledgehammers of a rectangular shape, designed to break down large stones. All works are performed according to the following algorithm:

  • Initially, the material is sorted in color and size, cleaned from garbage, dirt and lumps of land.
  • Then the boot is soaked. This is done so that the stone does not absorb water from the solution, thus weakening the strength of the future design.
  • The first row of stones are put on the fresh concrete (about 3-4 hours after the end of its laying). This allows you to achieve a qualitative and reliable clutch of the foundation and the future wall.
  • Next, masonry must be kept in traditional classic way.
  • To provide a flat laying plane, you should pull the string from the edge to the edge of the wall.
  • When several rows of the stone are laid out, you need to carry out the so-called seam box. This will give a laying more aesthetic appearance. It is important to ensure that there are no too large recesses between adjacent stones.
Laying of boob stone

Solution and tool for work

To create a bucket masonry, you will need the following tools and fixtures:

  • Rectangular sledgehammer.
  • Hammer-cam.
  • Master OK.
  • Two shovels - Soviet and bayonet.
  • Capacitance for the preparation of the solution.
  • Cord and level.
  • Manual tamper (metallic).

For masonry it is recommended to prepare a traditional solution from cement and sand. Moreover, the ratio of components will be different for different types of rocks. In the case of the use of sandstone or limestone, one part of the cement must be taken three parts of the sand. If the masonry is carried out of the granite boot, the ratio should be one to two. The solution should be plastic and completely fill out all empties between adjacent stones.

It is extremely important to emphasize that the process of creating a buffet is a whole art. In such a job there is no place for a hurry. Thoughtful and accurate distribution of stones in masonry - a guarantee of a qualitative result. More details about the masonry from the butt stone is told in the next video.

Foundation from Butt

Whole houses from the boob stone are not as often as often. Typically, only foundations and basements are built from it. Ribbon foundations from boot are good in that they do not require additional reinforcement. By this, they attract the attention of many builders. In addition, all the work can be performed with their own hands, without the involvement of heavy equipment.

Building house

Algorithm of actions when creating a base stone foundation:

  • Initially, the markup of the site is made.
  • Then the perimeter rushes trenches, the formwork is installed.
  • In the trenches fall asleep sand and put the first layer of stones into the sandy pillow.
  • Next prepare a cement-sandy solution and poured the lower row of buffet.
  • By the same principle, the subsequent ranks of the foundation are laid out. At the same time, the "gleaming of the seams" is performed (as when laying brickwork).
  • Rows protruding over the surface of the Earth are additionally reinforced by reinforcement or wire.

Following this rather simple algorithm, you can lay a solid and reliable basis capable of withstanding significant loads.

Fences from Butt

The fencing from the boob stone is reliably, and beautiful. Such a fence will serve you not one dozen years. The work begins with the markup of the plot and digging of the trench. The maintenance material is then selected: sandstone, limestone or river cobblestone fit.

Next poured the foundation, reference pillars are erected. The spans between them are filled with buttermaking, a decorative extension of the seams is made. The resulting design is thoroughly cleaned from the cement mortar. If you wish, you can additionally decorate forged details and lanterns.

Cheled stone characteristics

Finally, some more tricks that will come in handy in working with a butt:

  • Cement mortar used for fill, it is necessary to mix from time to time with a vibrator. So it will not harde it in the tank.
  • When erecting masonry or fence from boot, it is recommended to work in a pair. Construction without extra pair of hands will be quite problematic and uncomfortable.

Finally

Among the main advantages of boob stone are strength, durability, water resistance, environmental purity and attractive appearance. However, working with this building materials takes away a lot of time and effort. In addition, it is simply impossible for the construction of the bite laying without a certain experience and the corresponding knowledge. Relatively high cost is another disadvantage that the cheek stone has. The price per cube of this material varies widely - from 2500 to 15,000 rubles.

Natural stone is an ancient building material, which does not have the effects of time. Such a group includes whole rock rocks, characterized by durability that cannot be exposed to open flames, low moisture temperature modes that differ in decorative qualities. One of the common forms of this group of materials is a brown stone, which is not a certain breed and includes a certain list of natural formations.

Deposit and mining

The material is mined worldwide. As a rule, it is mountain ranges, accumulation of sedimentary rocks or erupted from the depths of the Earth in the process of volcanic activity, mining it today is actively actively.

It should be noted that the strict requirements for quality indicators should be followed. The structural structure of the stones should differ in purity, not to have bundles and cracks, without scattering with a hammer to crumble on separate elements.

The brands of boob material are divided into composition, indicators of strength, sizes and forms of pieces, frost resistance. If the stone does not meet certain standards, it is jammed into the rubble.

The main deposits of the boob stone are the Caucasus. Urals, Alps, various Russian and European regions. Moskovskaya, Kemerovo, Rostov region, Siberian districts, Kazakhstan, Bulgaria and Poland are famous for its fields.

Dog stone
What does the cheek stone look like

Material production is conducted in two ways:

  • Drill-belly - used for mining limestone, granite, sandstone. The explosion allows you to get small butt stones in weight having uneven edges, after which they are sorted by fractions. Production in this way has three stages - an explosion, loading, transportation;
  • Solving - this option is used if the stones are obtained from soft rocks.

Varieties

The brown stone is divided into four stamps.

Industrial

It is represented by fragments of rocks obtained in the process of explosive work in careers and the subsequent crushing process. Dams on rivers, supporting elements of bridges, foundation bases of industrial purpose buildings are erected from such a building material. In most cases, sandstone and limestone breeds are used to obtain such material.

Decorative

The fractions of such a boob stone varies with their sizes within fifteen - thirty centimeters, are subjected to special processing. A distinctive feature of this material are forms resembling discs. Stone is mined only by hand, it is used exclusively for decorative finishes.

Dog stone
Decorative brown stone

Bedroom

The material is characterized by parallelepiped forms, it is very similar to the usual brick. Plates in thickness most often exceed seven centimeters. Basically, such material is used in the arrangement of fences and finishing of the base areas of objects.

Rounded

Mainly, this stone is used in paving road surfaces and paving tracks, for the design of flower, lawns, fountains and small reservoirs. It is mined at a river day. The stone is distinguished by rounded smooth shapes, it is often called a cobblestone.

Main characteristics

In addition to production methods, the buttable material is divided into physico-technical indicators. There are certain Gosstandarts that determine the basic requirements for boot mining:

  • The strength of the material is determined by the weight that the stone is withstanding during the entire operational period. Close weakens include stones with marking M 200 - M 600, high levels of strength differ Booth M 1 200 - M 1 400;
  • Frostability resistance - this indicator depends on the rock and is determined by the number of cycles "freezing - thawing". For regions with cold climatic conditions, it is recommended to use Stone Booth F 300 - F 400;
  • The seal coefficient is used in determining the volumes of the incoming material, differ in the parameters of fractions;
  • The bulk density of the boob stone is the ratio of material volumes and its weight. This indicator is needed to calculate the need for boob stone for laying. Normal indicator - 1.3 - 1.9 tons per cubic meter;
  • The specific mass - depends on the breed and affects the final cost of the butt stone. The cubometer of solid rocks weighs from two to three tons, light stones reach weight from 1.3 to 2.6 tons;
  • The bulk mass - the weight of individual pieces of boot can be fifty kilograms. In coordination with the customer, boob stones and larger sizes may be mined;
  • Radioactivity - this indicator matters if the use of stone is assumed in the settlement. The first class is used to build residential areas, the second is directed to the construction of bridges, roads, embankments.
Dog stone
Brown Stone M 300

Pros and cons of building materials

Stone enjoys well-deserved popularity. The main advantages are:

  • Full environmental safety. According to such an indicator, experts put the "five". In the process of production, the chemical components are not used, the material completely differs in natural origin, it does not cause harm to the human body;
  • Long operational period - if you choose the right rock, it will not be destroyed by hundreds of years;
  • Wear resistance - the stone is able to withstand vertical and horizontal loads, is not afraid of the impact of humidity, wind, sharp temperature differences. The stone from which the foundation foundation is erected is or performing wall cladding, reduces thermal losses, is not afraid of insects, mold and fungus;
  • Practicality - the price of stone acceptable, because the production process and transportation do not require serious costs;
  • Beautiful appearance - the material at any time looks reliably, is distinguished by various colors;
  • Ease of manufacture - specialists give it the highest rating. With minimal working volumes, natural material can be produced independently.

As a disadvantage, it is possible to note the labor-intensive work on the laying of the material that implies the presence of certain skills. It will take not only the use of strong binding solutions, but also pick up stones on suitable sizes.

The complexity of the use of boot is estimated for three points, but here it is necessary to note that the laying can be guided without attracting special equipment, many works are fully performed by their own.

Nuances of work with boobov stone

When working with such material, it is recommended to follow certain rules:

  • A solid foundation is preparing;
  • Before starting work, the stones are sorted by size, which facilitates the workflow and saves time;
  • The first row is formed from tightly laid stones completely filled with liquid mortar. All hollow sections are filled with small stones;
  • The angular sections are laid from large elements located wide part down;
  • After every four rows, reinforcement is performed.

All about butt stone

Dog stone It is often used in the construction process, as well as landscape designers. It is appreciated for sustainability to high loads, immunity to adverse conditions and for a long service life. For each goal, a stone is suitable for some qualities and features. Before his acquisition should be familiar with all the nuances.

What it is?

Dog stone - these are pieces of rocks characterized by non-standard forms . The debris of the raw materials of a sedimentary type is usually mined, the density of which is at least 1800 kg / 1 m3. In most cases, it is used to produce limestone, sandstone, sewer or diorit. Also boot are used to get rubble.

You can find a rectangular, rounded or sloping stone on sale.

Characteristics of boob stone.

  • High strength. M1200-M1400 are considered the most durable.
  • Resistance to negative temperatures. For regions with severe winters, the F3000, F4000 brand is used.
  • The coefficient of the bout seal is dependent on boulder dimensions and is located on a medium or high mark.
  • The proportion varies on the basis of the selected variety. As a rule, a cubic meter of raw materials will weigh 2-3 tons.
  • Volumetric weight no more than 50 kg.
  • For bulk density, indicators of 1.3-1.9 tons per cubic meter are characteristic.
  • The size of the fractions is 25-50 cm.

If the brownstone is purchased for construction, varieties should be selected without cracks. Also need to pay attention The indicator of "cleanliness": The number of clay or mergel impurities should not exceed 2%. Cleanity can be determined using a boulder with a sledgehammer: the higher the belling and the smoothness of the sound of the impact, the structure is only the coherent.

Advantages and disadvantages

The advantages of boot include several properties.

  1. Long service life . If the installation is made competently, the raw material is able to serve several hundred years. For Gabion structures, granite boot is used.
  2. Ecology. Booth refers to the category of natural, natural raw materials. Chemical components do not apply during processing. This suggests that the stone is safe for people and nature.
  3. Aesthetic component . The brown stone is presented in a wide range of color schemes, which makes it possible to create different compositions.
  4. Availability . Since the stone is natural, it is easily mined and can be used independently.
  5. Practicality. Booth is a cheap material that does not need a plant for manufacturing, special equipment and equipped areas.
  6. Resistance to wear. Raw materials are not afraid of temperature differences, wind exposure, humidity, insect attacks and fungus. The stone can cope with any loads.

Among the disadvantages, only one item can be distinguished - too hard laying. In order to make the installation of boot, it will take a certain dexterity and an email.

Views

There are several types of boob stone, each of which is distinguished by its features and destination.

Based on the origin of Booth can be divided into several categories.

  • Limestone . This is a representative of sedimentary rocks, which is suitable for the arrangement of the supporting structure, tracks and even bridges.
  • Granitis . This is a hard sort. There is a wide palette of color solutions. The material will be relevant for the foundation, stair designs, decorative works.
  • Decorative. Another category of boot, which has been processed so that raw materials can be operated for decoration.

This is a beautiful stone for which some features are characteristic.

  • The size of the fractions is 150-300 mm.
  • Externally, each stone must be like a disk. Such configuration makes it possible during the finish a little strengthen the thickness of walls or fence structures.
  • Increased cleanliness requirements are imposed. Before laying stones are cleaned.
  • The edges additionally need to be customized under the image drawing.
  • Production is carried out only manually, because with the help of such a method you can save the aesthetic qualities of the stone.
  • Booth has a high value, which due to long deposits in the ground received peculiar prints on the surface in the form of moss, twigs and herbs. Such a feature gives the stone an attractive agree, which looks very noble.

Some companies resort to technologies, with which they are specially aged boot. However, this method increases the cost of the material.

Also Booth can be classified by colors and forms : Rounded, sawn, irregular shape. There are also the following varieties.

Industrial

This is a row, the extraction of which is carried out by an explosion, after which the stone is processed in the crusher . Typically mining a stone in a career with the help of overwork. After explosive work end, the stone takes out of a career to get a fraction from it. In order to get industrial or construction boot, limestone or sandy rocks are ideal.

These rocks have good characteristics for construction. Raw materials are actively used in the construction of dams, dams, supports for bridges and foundation.

Rounded

This variety produced from water bodies or create using a special processing method . The name itself suggests that the stone has rounded forms. Often, this species can be found in the regions where a tectonic type shifts were observed during the ice age. They rolled the stones, thus treating them and giving a round outline.

The second name of such a boot is a cobblestone.

The rounded brown edge is considered the most ancient material that is often used in Rome and ancient Egypt. Often he is in demand for the following purposes:

  • layout of roads, squares;
  • the creation of fountains, pools, in which artificial grottoes are present;
  • as decoration for lawns with flower beds;
  • From the rounded butt, you can make beautiful retaining walls, it is also well suited for creating individual components for landscape design.

Bedroom

Patchy stone has a form of parallelepiped. This name is given at the expense of the top and bottom edge of the stone, which the builders call the "bed". The minimum thickness of the fraction is 70 mm.

The material is suitable for the construction of fender structures, a decorative curb or finishing of the basement.

How and where are mined?

Boob deposits are located around the globe. As a rule, this natural stone is mined from mountain arrays where sedimentary rocks accumulate. Either it can be detected after the eruption of volcanoes.

There are rich fields in the territory Crimea, Alps, in the Urals, Caucasus and other cities of the Russian Federation . In addition, the field is located on the territory of Ukraine, Kazakhstan, Poland and Bulgaria.

Booth production is very active, because there is a great demand for this stone.

During the mining process, some technical conditions must be performed. In addition to the fact that the structure of boot should be clean, without bundles, only strong fractions are selected, which are not scattered when hitting the hammers.

There are two methods of mining.

  • Explosive. This method is obtained by limestone, granite and sandstone. With the help of the explosion, you can get a brine weight with uneven faces. In the future, raw materials are classified in size. In total, the process is divided into three stages: an explosion, loading and transportation.
  • Sawing. Relevant to obtain a stone from a soft rock.

What is used for?

The demand of the butte stone is due to its characteristics that made this raw material indispensable in construction work. Booth has a rich history, according to which he was used by people for thousands of years in ancient cultures, and the construction of it differ in durability.

Now Booth also enjoys Supply and surpasses other building materials on their qualities. In the past, the boob stone was built at home. Now it is applied for a variety of goals.

Foundation

Booth since ancient times began to be used for construction House support. The pillars or foundation coped with the loads of millennia and still demonstrate enviable resistance.

Such a fundamental basis will differ in massiveness, and for its creation will require great physical costs. . However, all efforts will be justified because the boot retaining wall is the eternal erection that is not terrible frost, moisture and load.

Specialists are recommended bout If a large carrier design is planned.

Large boulders should be placed in the lower part in the corners so that the structure is strong. For the first row, a cement mixture is used, and emptiness is filled with stones of shallow fraction.

The construction of a boob foundation is a good solution because:

  • The construction will have impeccable characteristics - the strength of the stone allows you to withstand the load of the two-storey house;
  • Resistance to bad weather conditions, even to floods, as well as immunity to mechanical effects;
  • With the financial side, such a foundation is also beneficial - the tab is characterized by simplicity, so you can cope with it without the help of profile craftsmen;
  • Booth is suitable for the construction of any terrain and soil;
  • If the tab was made correctly, such a foundation would have an attractiveness, even if it was not made of cladding.

It is worth understanding that ideal technologies do not exist, so you need to get acquainted with the negative side of the construction of a butt foundation. First of all, it is associated with the complexity. Despite the fact that the construction is accompanied by simplicity, all actions can be done only manually. Technique in this issue will not help.

To build was strong, you will need Use only massive stones. Therefore, the assistant will need, which will provide support.

Fence

Many people prefer a fence from Bout, because such a fence is characterized by beauty, it is capable of protecting against noise from the street and exhausts from vehicles. Immunity to negative weather conditions allows the fear of serving for many years.

Boob stones are characterized by incorrect forms, so spans should be created from them. Poles are recommended to do from cramped raw materials. Limestone, granite, dolomite or sandstone stamps are suitable for work. The foundation must be made from a reliable material, because the butt fence will have a lot of weight. In most cases, the fence is created only around the main facade, so it should be immediately resolved with the size of the gate, wickets.

It should be borne in mind that it is impossible to interrupt the foundation, since the highest load is assigned to these sections.

Facing

Since it is not in every case you can build bob buildings, some people Resort to facing With the help of such a material. Choosing raw materials should consider the color solution, pattern and shape of stone . If you follow these conditions, it will get a real masterpiece.

Landscape design

In the landscape, Booth is also actively used. Connoisseurs of natural materials you can make a garden in a wild style - Booth will be the perfect solution for this. Designers use medium-sized stones for Flower flower beds. Such a move is noticeable transforms the appearance of flower beds and flowers around which raw boulders are located, they look gently and romantic. After a few years, the grass will grumble between the stones, which will make the design even more attractive.

Booth on the flower bed does not give the ground to crumble on paths, if the garden plot has a bias.

Some users decide to create artificial ponds, laying out the bottom of the stones or equipping the shore with their help. You can build a swimming pool that will look unusual.

Will look very impressive Mangal of boob stone, gazebo or bath. For bath Booth is a good option due to the technical characteristics of the material.

Still from the boot you can lay out tracks or just scatter large boulders in the garden Having created the effect of untouched nature. In the first case, the path will be an original decorative addition.

In order to create a boob path , It will take in advance to decide on its route, remove the turf layer. If you plan to use large boulders, they should be deepened. The stones themselves should be laid in the sand. Between cobblestones, a distance of 5-7 centimeters is created. For small fractions, a maximum distance of 3 centimeters is applied. At the final stage, a solution is used to eliminate the formation of recesses.

To the path from Booth served as long as possible, it is recommended to arrange the stocks along the edges. With this method, water will not linger on it.

About the basics of masonry of the boob stone, see the video below.

As a building material, the brown stone is known for a long time. Vintage cobblestone bridges are made of its variety - rounded stones rolling with water or glaciers. Although most often this building material is extracted in careers with an explosive way in the development of granite deposits, limestone, sandstone, dolomite, etc.

Choosing a cheese stone for any kind of work, pay attention to its view and characteristics.
Choosing a cheese stone for any kind of work, pay attention to its view and characteristics.

Usually, the boob stone has an uneven shape and a different size, specific requirements are presented to its quality:

  • The maximum size of a single stone should not exceed 50 cm, the weight is 50 kg. For hydraulic structures, a stone is used with a limit size of 30 cm and weighing 30 kg.
  • The number of impurities should not exceed 2 percent of the volume of building material.
  • Cracks, bundles and clay presence in the composition of butt stone are not allowed. One of the subjective methods for determining its homogeneity is the purity and sound bellivity when hit by the hammer.

Scope of application

On the use of the use of the brown stone can be divided into two types.

Industrial . The material used to build dams, bridges, dams, the foundations of promotions, engineering structures is mined by a drill. It passes through the crushing machines, and then fractionizes.

Dog stone - one of the traditional materials for the construction of hydraulic structures
Dog stone - one of the traditional materials for the construction of hydraulic structures

Masonry and decorative . It is produced manually, since the appearance and integrity of the stone are important. For decorative purposes (finishing of facades, bases, fences, arrangement of tracks), a flat stone is chosen. Often it requires additional processing. For masonry, the so-called bedtish boot is used, which has a brick shape.

Decorative walls, fountains, flowerbeds, borders, landscape design elements are often manufactured from Bout.

Building structures are functional and attractively look
Building structures are functional and attractively look

The main characteristics of the boob stone

The scope of using boob stone is largely determined by its parameters. Among them:

  • Mark. Material - characterizes compression strength, fluctuates in the range from M100 to M1400. The most durable stone is used for the construction of roads and bridges.
  • Frost resistance - This is the number of cycles of freezing-thawing, which transfers material without loss of quality. The minimum amount for boob stone is 15 cycles. For areas with a predominance of low temperatures, boot with frost-resistance F300-F400 is used.
  • Radioactivity. For residential buildings, a first-class of the first class of radioactivity is used (up to 370 BC / kg), for industrial, let's say the second class (more than 370 BC / kg).
  • By lamb Dog stone is divided into five groups. The smaller percentage of needle grains (up to 10%) in the first group.
  • Bulk density It is important when calculating the amount of boob stone for masonry. The norm varies in the range of 1.3-1.9 t / m3 and reflects the mass ratio to the volume of the material.
  • Specific gravity - This is a mass of one cubic meter of stone, it depends on the breed and affects the cost of building material.
  • Seal coefficient Butt stones depends on its fraction and allows you to determine its volume.

Boob stacking process

Working with natural stone begins with preliminary preparation: sorting in size and color, cleaning from traces of soil, organic inclusions, construction waste. Then the stone must be soaked in water so that it will be poisoned by moisture and removed it from the cement mortar.

So that the clutch of the base laying with the base of the foundation or the base was as strong as possible, the first row of the stone should be placed 4 hours after the fill. After the concrete grabbies, the masonry can be produced by the usual method.

Building stones can stand over a hundred years old if you choose the relevant breed and keep the laying technology
Building stones can stand over a hundred years old if you choose the relevant breed and keep the laying technology

A neat and sympathetic type of the butt wall will give the extending of the seams that need to be made after graspting the solution. In the manufacture of a solution for a boob stone from granite per part of cement (M400 or M500), two parts of the sand take two parts. For limestone or sandstone, the proportion is 1: 3.

You need to fill the gaps between the stones very carefully so that there are no emptiness or holes, where the snow can be clogged or to get water.

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES

The number of advantages of boob stone is impressive. No wonder it is still one of the popular building materials. Among his advantages:

  • Ecology. Thanks to the natural origin, the brown stone is harmless to health, which adds to him popularity.
  • Significant wear resistance. Mold, insects, humidity, temperature differences, the wind is not scary to bob stone and do not worsen his qualities. It is well withstanding vertical and horizontal loads.
  • Simple manufacture. For boob stone, some complex technologies or equipment are required. And it is well affected at its price.
  • Large service life. Buildings from Butovo Stone can stand more than a hundred years.
  • Aesthetic appearance. The brownstone is not only reliable, it looks great in decorative compositions.
In the presence of skillful hands of the composition of the butte stone easily turn into works of art
In the presence of skillful hands of the composition of the butte stone easily turn into works of art

Disadvantages of this building material are also available. The main is complexity when used. In order to beautifully lay the cheesestone, pick up the pieces suitable to each other, a considerable skill is required. But - everything comes with experience. Having accumulated it, you can completely transform your country area, and with your own hands and at low costs.

The main task is to choose the stones suitable and size
The main task is to choose the stones suitable and size

The brown stone today is often used in building and finishing work, well-combining excellent strength characteristics and artistic appearance.

Dog stone

What is a brown stone

It is impossible to say that the brownstone is some kind of defined breed. Taking advantage of the terminology of writers, it can be said that this is a collective image, since the composition includes dolomite, and limestone, and sandstone, combined only with a maximum size, which must correspond to 500 mm and weighing and should not exceed 50 kg.

Thus, the brownstone is fragments of rocks with certain dimensions and a certain weight, which are obtained as a result of rubble production when it is divided into various fractions.

Requirements for the quality of boot strictly limit the impurities of 2% of the total mass, do not allow to stay in its composition of clay or markels, and also exclude bundles and any cracks.

Application area

Dog stone is used to build and finish the following objects:

  1. Foundations of structures that can be attributed to monumental.
  2. Engineering facilities. These include retaining walls and various enclosing structures in unheated structures.
  3. Hydraulic structures, such as channels, wells, sumps, etc.
  4. Fencing of small height.
  5. Putting roads and sidewalks in elite areas of settlements.
  6. Landscape and decorative elements.
  7. Finishing bases and facades of buildings and decoration of fences.

Ribbon foundations from Booth attract the attention of builders by the fact that they do not require reinforcement, the role of which the stone plates themselves are performed.

For hydraulic structures, the size of the butte stone is required slightly less than the above. The weight should not exceed 30 kg, and the size is limited to 300 - 350 mm.

Alpine slides made of this material, decorative pools, fountains, framing for flower beds and lawns are especially spectacular.

Dog stone

Specifications and classification

  1. The main characteristic of the butte stone is its resistance to compression. It is this parameter that determines the material brand, which ranges from 100 to 1200. In other words, the boot stone can withstand the load on compression from 100 kg / cm2 to 1200 kg / cm2.
  2. Frost resistance of boot should be no lower than 15 cycles. That is, the material is subject to freezing and defrosting at least fifteen times and this did not affect his carrying ability. The stamps of the boob stone on this indicator can be from F15 to F300.
  3. Beshech is a very important characteristic of boot. The concept of testicle allows you to determine the ratio in the stone of needle and flat grains. According to this indicator, Booth is divided into five groups of the V group (35-50%) to the I group (less than 10%).
  4. The radioactivity of the material is divided into two classes:
    • I class (up to 370 BC / kg) for the use of boot in the conditions of residential areas and settlements;
    • Class II (over 370 BC / kg) for the use of stone in industrial construction.

There is another absolutely individual indicator, which is characterized by the sound tonality published by a stone after a hammer impact. The more belligently and exactly the sound occurs, the less different impurities in the stone, the more homogeneous its structure.

Types of butte stones

Dog stone

  1. Industrial Booth. It is a stone rock rock, which is obtained by an explosive method and has been recycling in crushing machines located at crushed stone issues. Most often, this type of boot is mined in careers with an overnight way. After explosive work, the "aggregate" stone is obtained from a career for further fractionation. The most suitable breeds for obtaining industrial boct are limestone and sandstone, which in their physicochemical properties fully satisfy the needs of builders. Such responsible structures such as dams, dams, bridge supports, foundations of industrial facilities are erected from industrial boct.
  2. Decorative Booth is a boot stone that has been treated for finishing and having the following distinctive features:
    • Its sizes range from 150 to 300 mm.
    • The configuration of each stone should resemble a disc, which will allow during finishing work slightly increase the thickness of the wall or fence.
    • Increased requirements for the purity of each stone, assumed his stripping before laying.
    • Requires additional edges processing for fitting when laying or to create a specific pattern.

    Decorative boot is mined solely by hand, since only the careful attitude towards its surface makes it possible to maintain its uniqueness and artistic value. Decorative stones are especially in high demand, which for centuries on their surfaces received prints of herbs, branches of moss, in their body have inclusions of other geological rocks. This time imprint gives them charm of antiquity. Nowadays there are technologies that allow artificially a stone. All of these factors significantly increase the cost of decorative butt.

  3. Rounded Booth - This is a stone that was mined from water bodies or was subjected to special processing, as a result, all edges acquired rounded outlines. Very often, such stones are found in those areas where tectonic shifts occurred in the ice age, which rolling the stones, gave their surfaces the wrong outlines with rounded parties. It is them that they are called "cobblestones". It is possible to download that it is the rounded boot one of the most ancient stone materials, which was used in ancient Egypt, and in Rome. Most often they are applied to:
    • Paving roads and squares.
    • Erecting fountains and decorative pools with artificial grotts.
    • Framing of flower and lawn.
    • Creating decorative retaining walls.
    • Creation of exclusive elements of the landscape.
  4. Putting Booth Its has a parallelepiped and it can be fully called the prototype of modern brick. He got his name from the name of the upper and lower edges of the stone, which bricklayers are called "beds". The thickness of the plates for obtaining a staging butt is at least 70 mm. Fencing withdraws from it, they create decorative borders, chop the grounds of buildings.

Basic rules when working with boot

  • First, before starting any work with the butt, it is necessary to sort out and sort it on the following features:
    • In size, which will allow when performing masonry or finishing works correctly lay stones, providing maximum strength characteristics of the structure.
    • In color. This is especially important if the edge stone will serve as a finishing material. This will make it possible to choose the color gamut corresponding to the design plan on the decoration of structures.
  • Secondly, it is necessary to make a thorough stripping of the surface of the stones from the soil, construction waste and the engines of organic materials (branches, leaves, etc.) which may disrupt the masonry uniformity, reduce the strength characteristics or spoil the appearance.
  • Thirdly, it should be borne in mind that the bay laying is not a craft, it is an art of akin to the art of the sculptor, so you do not need to put temporary records that can spoil the whole idea. Thoughtful distribution of stones in the laying of the wall or on its surface when finishing will turn the building into the work of art.

Technology of butt masonry

After sorting and cleaning the boob stone, you can start stamps:

  1. Immediately before the start of the masonry, the boot must be thoroughly treated in water, as it may, when contacting with a solution, choose water from it and thereby weaken the solution brand.
  2. The first row of stones need to be laid on the fresh concrete of the foundation (or basement) of the building approximately four hours after the end of laying concrete. This will result in achieving high-quality clutch design of the foundation and wall design.
  3. To ensure a flat wall plane, it is necessary to pull the lace from the angle to the corner of the building. If the building dimensions are large enough, then the entire length of the wall must be divided into 5 - 6 meters in the captures.
  4. After grappling concrete, you can lead the walls of the wall by the traditional "classic" method.
  5. After a number of or two will be posted after the initial setting of the solution on which the stones are laid, it is necessary to produce seams, which will give the wall more accurate and artistic appearance. When opening the seams, it is necessary to remember that holes or recesses should not be formed between the stones, in which water can accumulate or suffer snow. This can lead to the destruction of the wall and the formation of cracks.

Dog stone

Solution

For masonry, it is recommended to use a cement-sandy solution M400 or M500.

For boob stone from granite or diabase, the ratio of the components of the solution should be one part of the cement of no more than two parts of the sand. If the brown stone is made of limestone or sandstone, then the ratio of one part of the cement is three parts of the sand. The solution must be plastic and completely fill all the holes and gaps between the stones.

Tool

For buffet masonry, the same tool is used as for conventional brickwork:

  • Shovel Soviet and bayonge.
  • Master OK.
  • Hammer-cam.
  • Metal manual tamper.
  • Buffes for the preparation of the solution.
  • Cord braced.
  • Level 2 meter.

Dog stone

Cost of boob stone

The cost of boot ranges from 3,000 to 5,000 rubles per meter cubic, if it is a regular stone. If the stone is decorative and has artistic distinctive features, then its value ranges from 10,000 to 17,000 rubles. Tangly on the cost affects the delivery price and market demand in the sale region.

Dog stone It is often used in the construction process, as well as landscape designers. It is appreciated for sustainability to high loads, immunity to adverse conditions and for a long service life. For each goal, a stone is suitable for some qualities and features. Before his acquisition should be familiar with all the nuances.

What it is?

Dog stone - these are pieces of rocks characterized by non-standard forms . The debris of the raw materials of a sedimentary type is usually mined, the density of which is at least 1800 kg / 1 m3. In most cases, it is used to produce limestone, sandstone, sewer or diorit. Also boot are used to get rubble.

You can find a rectangular, rounded or sloping stone on sale.

Characteristics of boob stone.

  • High strength. M1200-M1400 are considered the most durable.
  • Resistance to negative temperatures. For regions with severe winters, the F3000, F4000 brand is used.
  • The coefficient of the bout seal is dependent on boulder dimensions and is located on a medium or high mark.
  • The proportion varies on the basis of the selected variety. As a rule, a cubic meter of raw materials will weigh 2-3 tons.
  • Volumetric weight no more than 50 kg.
  • For bulk density, indicators of 1.3-1.9 tons per cubic meter are characteristic.
  • The size of the fractions is 25-50 cm.

If the brownstone is purchased for construction, varieties should be selected without cracks. Also need to pay attention The indicator of "cleanliness": The number of clay or mergel impurities should not exceed 2%. Cleanity can be determined using a boulder with a sledgehammer: the higher the belling and the smoothness of the sound of the impact, the structure is only the coherent.

Advantages and disadvantages

The advantages of boot include several properties.

  1. Long service life . If the installation is made competently, the raw material is able to serve several hundred years. For Gabion structures, granite boot is used.
  2. Ecology. Booth refers to the category of natural, natural raw materials. Chemical components do not apply during processing. This suggests that the stone is safe for people and nature.
  3. Aesthetic component . The brown stone is presented in a wide range of color schemes, which makes it possible to create different compositions.
  4. Availability . Since the stone is natural, it is easily mined and can be used independently.
  5. Practicality. Booth is a cheap material that does not need a plant for manufacturing, special equipment and equipped areas.
  6. Resistance to wear. Raw materials are not afraid of temperature differences, wind exposure, humidity, insect attacks and fungus. The stone can cope with any loads.

Among the disadvantages, only one item can be distinguished - too hard laying. In order to make the installation of boot, it will take a certain dexterity and an email.

Application area

Dog stone is used to build and finish the following objects:

  1. Foundations of structures that can be attributed to monumental.
  2. Engineering facilities. These include retaining walls and various enclosing structures in unheated structures.
  3. Hydraulic structures, such as channels, wells, sumps, etc.
  4. Fencing of small height.
  5. Putting roads and sidewalks in elite areas of settlements.
  6. Landscape and decorative elements.
  7. Finishing bases and facades of buildings and decoration of fences.

Ribbon foundations from Booth attract the attention of builders by the fact that they do not require reinforcement, the role of which the stone plates themselves are performed.

For hydraulic structures, the size of the butte stone is required slightly less than the above. The weight should not exceed 30 kg, and the size is limited to 300 - 350 mm.

Alpine slides made of this material, decorative pools, fountains, framing for flower beds and lawns are especially spectacular.

Specifications and classification

  1. The main characteristic of the butte stone is its resistance to compression. It is this parameter that determines the material brand, which ranges from 100 to 1200. In other words, the boot stone can withstand the load on compression from 100 kg / cm2 to 1200 kg / cm2.
  2. Frost resistance of boot should be no lower than 15 cycles. That is, the material is subject to freezing and defrosting at least fifteen times and this did not affect his carrying ability. The stamps of the boob stone on this indicator can be from F15 to F300.
  3. Beshech is a very important characteristic of boot. The concept of testicle allows you to determine the ratio in the stone of needle and flat grains. According to this indicator, Booth is divided into five groups of the V group (35-50%) to the I group (less than 10%).
  4. The radioactivity of the material is divided into two classes:
    • I class (up to 370 BC / kg) for the use of boot in the conditions of residential areas and settlements;
    • Class II (over 370 BC / kg) for the use of stone in industrial construction.

There is another absolutely individual indicator, which is characterized by the sound tonality published by a stone after a hammer impact. The more belligently and exactly the sound occurs, the less different impurities in the stone, the more homogeneous its structure.

Types of butte stones

  1. Industrial Booth. It is a stone rock rock, which is obtained by an explosive method and has been recycling in crushing machines located at crushed stone issues. Most often, this type of boot is mined in careers with an overnight way. After explosive work, the "aggregate" stone is obtained from a career for further fractionation. The most suitable breeds for obtaining industrial boct are limestone and sandstone, which in their physicochemical properties fully satisfy the needs of builders. Such responsible structures such as dams, dams, bridge supports, foundations of industrial facilities are erected from industrial boct.
  2. Decorative Booth is a boot stone that has been treated for finishing and having the following distinctive features:
    • Its sizes range from 150 to 300 mm.
    • The configuration of each stone should resemble a disc, which will allow during finishing work slightly increase the thickness of the wall or fence.
    • Increased requirements for the purity of each stone, assumed his stripping before laying.
    • Requires additional edges processing for fitting when laying or to create a specific pattern.

    Decorative boot is mined solely by hand, since only the careful attitude towards its surface makes it possible to maintain its uniqueness and artistic value. Decorative stones are especially in high demand, which for centuries on their surfaces received prints of herbs, branches of moss, in their body have inclusions of other geological rocks. This time imprint gives them charm of antiquity. Nowadays there are technologies that allow artificially a stone. All of these factors significantly increase the cost of decorative butt.

  3. Rounded Booth - This is a stone that was mined from water bodies or was subjected to special processing, as a result, all edges acquired rounded outlines. Very often, such stones are found in those areas where tectonic shifts occurred in the ice age, which rolling the stones, gave their surfaces the wrong outlines with rounded parties. It is them that they are called "cobblestones". It is possible to download that it is the rounded boot one of the most ancient stone materials, which was used in ancient Egypt, and in Rome. Most often they are applied to:
    • Paving roads and squares.
    • Erecting fountains and decorative pools with artificial grotts.
    • Framing of flower and lawn.
    • Creating decorative retaining walls.
    • Creation of exclusive elements of the landscape.
  4. Putting Booth Its has a parallelepiped and it can be fully called the prototype of modern brick. He got his name from the name of the upper and lower edges of the stone, which bricklayers are called "beds". The thickness of the plates for obtaining a staging butt is at least 70 mm. Fencing withdraws from it, they create decorative borders, chop the grounds of buildings.
  • First, before starting any work with the butt, it is necessary to sort out and sort it on the following features:
    • In size, which will allow when performing masonry or finishing works correctly lay stones, providing maximum strength characteristics of the structure.
    • In color. This is especially important if the edge stone will serve as a finishing material. This will make it possible to choose the color gamut corresponding to the design plan on the decoration of structures.
  • Secondly, it is necessary to make a thorough stripping of the surface of the stones from the soil, construction waste and the engines of organic materials (branches, leaves, etc.) which may disrupt the masonry uniformity, reduce the strength characteristics or spoil the appearance.
  • Thirdly, it should be borne in mind that the bay laying is not a craft, it is an art of akin to the art of the sculptor, so you do not need to put temporary records that can spoil the whole idea. Thoughtful distribution of stones in the laying of the wall or on its surface when finishing will turn the building into the work of art.
After sorting and cleaning the boob stone, you can start stamps:
  1. Immediately before the start of the masonry, the boot must be thoroughly treated in water, as it may, when contacting with a solution, choose water from it and thereby weaken the solution brand.
  2. The first row of stones need to be laid on the fresh concrete of the foundation (or basement) of the building approximately four hours after the end of laying concrete. This will result in achieving high-quality clutch design of the foundation and wall design.
  3. To ensure a flat wall plane, it is necessary to pull the lace from the angle to the corner of the building. If the building dimensions are large enough, then the entire length of the wall must be divided into 5 - 6 meters in the captures.
  4. After grappling concrete, you can lead the walls of the wall by the traditional "classic" method.
  5. After a number of or two will be posted after the initial setting of the solution on which the stones are laid, it is necessary to produce seams, which will give the wall more accurate and artistic appearance. When opening the seams, it is necessary to remember that holes or recesses should not be formed between the stones, in which water can accumulate or suffer snow. This can lead to the destruction of the wall and the formation of cracks.

Foundation

Booth since ancient times began to be used for construction House support. The pillars or foundation coped with the loads of millennia and still demonstrate enviable resistance.

Such a fundamental basis will differ in massiveness, and for its creation will require great physical costs. . However, all efforts will be justified because the boot retaining wall is the eternal erection that is not terrible frost, moisture and load.

Specialists are recommended bout If a large carrier design is planned.

Large boulders should be placed in the lower part in the corners so that the structure is strong. For the first row, a cement mixture is used, and emptiness is filled with stones of shallow fraction.

The construction of a boob foundation is a good solution because:

  • The construction will have impeccable characteristics - the strength of the stone allows you to withstand the load of the two-storey house;
  • Resistance to bad weather conditions, even to floods, as well as immunity to mechanical effects;
  • With the financial side, such a foundation is also beneficial - the tab is characterized by simplicity, so you can cope with it without the help of profile craftsmen;
  • Booth is suitable for the construction of any terrain and soil;
  • If the tab was made correctly, such a foundation would have an attractiveness, even if it was not made of cladding.

It is worth understanding that ideal technologies do not exist, so you need to get acquainted with the negative side of the construction of a butt foundation. First of all, it is associated with the complexity. Despite the fact that the construction is accompanied by simplicity, all actions can be done only manually. Technique in this issue will not help.

To build was strong, you will need Use only massive stones. Therefore, the assistant will need, which will provide support.

Fence

Many people prefer a fence from Bout, because such a fence is characterized by beauty, it is capable of protecting against noise from the street and exhausts from vehicles. Immunity to negative weather conditions allows the fear of serving for many years.

Boob stones are characterized by incorrect forms, so spans should be created from them. Poles are recommended to do from cramped raw materials. Limestone, granite, dolomite or sandstone stamps are suitable for work. The foundation must be made from a reliable material, because the butt fence will have a lot of weight. In most cases, the fence is created only around the main facade, so it should be immediately resolved with the size of the gate, wickets.

It should be borne in mind that it is impossible to interrupt the foundation, since the highest load is assigned to these sections.

Facing

Since it is not in every case you can build bob buildings, some people Resort to facing With the help of such a material. Choosing raw materials should consider the color solution, pattern and shape of stone . If you follow these conditions, it will get a real masterpiece.

The main types of butt stones that are used in landscape design

Limestone

This is one of the most common materials of natural origin. The limestone is characterized by a rich gamma colors. Based on our own tastes and personal preferences, the material of white, golden, cream and other color can be used. There is one indisputable advantage of limestone - this is the ability to attract microorganisms, in particular moss. Although this property at first glance may seem the disadvantage, it allows you to significantly improve the landscape design. Do not do here and without minuses. It is necessary to note primarily the inability of limestone to resist natural destruction, which is usually observed under the influence of wind and moisture.

Sandstone

It has a wider range of gamut than limestone. In nature, cream, sand-gold, red, gray and many other sandstone species are common. This is more expensive material than limestone, but it is more durable.

Granite

He is a representative of one of the most common rocks. Granite is well known for high strength and special aesthetic attractiveness. It is widely used to create such elements of landscape design, like columns, benches, stairs, pillars and others. Any granite product will make a plot more solid and luxurious.

Slanets

It is also referred to as a group of natural origin, but his color palette is wider than that of granite. In nature there are violet, red, gray, green and other types of slate. The manifold of shades made a slate very popular material in modern landscape design.

Basic rules when working with boot

  • First, before starting any work with the butt, it is necessary to sort out and sort it on the following features:
    • In size, which will allow when performing masonry or finishing works correctly lay stones, providing maximum strength characteristics of the structure.
    • In color. This is especially important if the edge stone will serve as a finishing material. This will make it possible to choose the color gamut corresponding to the design plan on the decoration of structures.
  • Secondly, it is necessary to make a thorough stripping of the surface of the stones from the soil, construction waste and the engines of organic materials (branches, leaves, etc.) which may disrupt the masonry uniformity, reduce the strength characteristics or spoil the appearance.
  • Thirdly, it should be borne in mind that the bay laying is not a craft, it is an art of akin to the art of the sculptor, so you do not need to put temporary records that can spoil the whole idea. Thoughtful distribution of stones in the laying of the wall or on its surface when finishing will turn the building into the work of art.

Technology of butt masonry

After sorting and cleaning the boob stone, you can start stamps:

  1. Immediately before the start of the masonry, the boot must be thoroughly treated in water, as it may, when contacting with a solution, choose water from it and thereby weaken the solution brand.
  2. The first row of stones need to be laid on the fresh concrete of the foundation (or basement) of the building approximately four hours after the end of laying concrete. This will result in achieving high-quality clutch design of the foundation and wall design.
  3. To ensure a flat wall plane, it is necessary to pull the lace from the angle to the corner of the building. If the building dimensions are large enough, then the entire length of the wall must be divided into 5 - 6 meters in the captures.
  4. After grappling concrete, you can lead the walls of the wall by the traditional "classic" method.
  5. After a number of or two will be posted after the initial setting of the solution on which the stones are laid, it is necessary to produce seams, which will give the wall more accurate and artistic appearance. When opening the seams, it is necessary to remember that holes or recesses should not be formed between the stones, in which water can accumulate or suffer snow. This can lead to the destruction of the wall and the formation of cracks.

Solution

For masonry, it is recommended to use a cement-sandy solution M400 or M500.

For boob stone from granite or diabase, the ratio of the components of the solution should be one part of the cement of no more than two parts of the sand. If the brown stone is made of limestone or sandstone, then the ratio of one part of the cement is three parts of the sand. The solution must be plastic and completely fill all the holes and gaps between the stones.

Tool

For buffet masonry, the same tool is used as for conventional brickwork:

  • Shovel Soviet and bayonge.
  • Master OK.
  • Hammer-cam.
  • Metal manual tamper.
  • Buffes for the preparation of the solution.
  • Cord braced.
  • Level 2 meter.

Cost of boob stone

The cost of boot ranges from 3,000 to 5,000 rubles per meter cubic, if it is a regular stone. If the stone is decorative and has artistic distinctive features, then its value ranges from 10,000 to 17,000 rubles. Tangly on the cost affects the delivery price and market demand in the sale region.

The brown stone today is often used in building and finishing work, well-combining excellent strength characteristics and artistic appearance.

What is a brown stone

Butovyj-kamen2.It is impossible to say that the brownstone is some kind of defined breed. Taking advantage of the terminology of writers, it can be said that this is a collective image, since the composition includes dolomite, and limestone, and sandstone, combined only with a maximum size, which must correspond to 500 mm and weighing and should not exceed 50 kg.

Thus, the brownstone is fragments of rocks with certain dimensions and a certain weight, which are obtained as a result of rubble production when it is divided into various fractions.

Requirements for the quality of boot strictly limit the impurities of 2% of the total mass, do not allow to stay in its composition of clay or markels, and also exclude bundles and any cracks.

Application area

Dog stone is used to build and finish the following objects:

  1. Foundations of structures that can be attributed to monumental.
  2. Engineering facilities. These include retaining walls and various enclosing structures in unheated structures.
  3. Hydraulic structures, such as channels, wells, sumps, etc.
  4. Fencing of small height.
  5. Putting roads and sidewalks in elite areas of settlements.
  6. Landscape and decorative elements.
  7. Finishing bases and facades of buildings and decoration of fences.

Ribbon foundations from Booth attract the attention of builders by the fact that they do not require reinforcement, the role of which the stone plates themselves are performed.

For hydraulic structures, the size of the butte stone is required slightly less than the above. The weight should not exceed 30 kg, and the size is limited to 300 - 350 mm.

Alpine slides made of this material, decorative pools, fountains, framing for flower beds and lawns are especially spectacular.

Specifications and classification

  1. The main characteristic of the butte stone is its resistance to compression. It is this parameter that determines the material brand, which ranges from 100 to 1200. In other words, the boot stone can withstand the load on compression from 100 kg / cm2 to 1200 kg / cm2.
  2. Frost resistance of boot should be no lower than 15 cycles. That is, the material is subject to freezing and defrosting at least fifteen times and this did not affect his carrying ability. The stamps of the boob stone on this indicator can be from F15 to F300.
  3. Beshech is a very important characteristic of boot. The concept of testicle allows you to determine the ratio in the stone of needle and flat grains. According to this indicator, Booth is divided into five groups of the V group (35-50%) to the I group (less than 10%).
  4. The radioactivity of the material is divided into two classes:
    • I class (up to 370 BC / kg) for the use of boot in the conditions of residential areas and settlements;
    • Class II (over 370 BC / kg) for the use of stone in industrial construction.

There is another absolutely individual indicator, which is characterized by the sound tonality published by a stone after a hammer impact. The more belligently and exactly the sound occurs, the less different impurities in the stone, the more homogeneous its structure.

Types of butte stones

Types of boob stone

  1. Industrial Booth. It is a stone rock rock, which is obtained by an explosive method and has been recycling in crushing machines located at crushed stone issues. Most often, this type of boot is mined in careers with an overnight way. After explosive work, the "aggregate" stone is obtained from a career for further fractionation. The most suitable breeds for obtaining industrial boct are limestone and sandstone, which in their physicochemical properties fully satisfy the needs of builders. Such responsible structures such as dams, dams, bridge supports, foundations of industrial facilities are erected from industrial boct.
  2. Decorative Booth is a boot stone that has been treated for finishing and having the following distinctive features:
    • Its sizes range from 150 to 300 mm.
    • The configuration of each stone should resemble a disc, which will allow during finishing work slightly increase the thickness of the wall or fence.
    • Increased requirements for the purity of each stone, assumed his stripping before laying.
    • Requires additional edges processing for fitting when laying or to create a specific pattern.

    Decorative boot is mined solely by hand, since only the careful attitude towards its surface makes it possible to maintain its uniqueness and artistic value. Decorative stones are especially in high demand, which for centuries on their surfaces received prints of herbs, branches of moss, in their body have inclusions of other geological rocks. This time imprint gives them charm of antiquity. Nowadays there are technologies that allow artificially a stone. All of these factors significantly increase the cost of decorative butt.

  3. Rounded Booth - This is a stone that was mined from water bodies or was subjected to special processing, as a result, all edges acquired rounded outlines. Very often, such stones are found in those areas where tectonic shifts occurred in the ice age, which rolling the stones, gave their surfaces the wrong outlines with rounded parties. It is them that they are called "cobblestones". It is possible to download that it is the rounded boot one of the most ancient stone materials, which was used in ancient Egypt, and in Rome. Most often they are applied to:
    • Paving roads and squares.
    • Erecting fountains and decorative pools with artificial grotts.
    • Framing of flower and lawn.
    • Creating decorative retaining walls.
    • Creation of exclusive elements of the landscape.
  4. Putting Booth Its has a parallelepiped and it can be fully called the prototype of modern brick. He got his name from the name of the upper and lower edges of the stone, which bricklayers are called "beds". The thickness of the plates for obtaining a staging butt is at least 70 mm. Fencing withdraws from it, they create decorative borders, chop the grounds of buildings.

Basic rules when working with boot

  • First, before starting any work with the butt, it is necessary to sort out and sort it on the following features:
    • In size, which will allow when performing masonry or finishing works correctly lay stones, providing maximum strength characteristics of the structure.
    • In color. This is especially important if the edge stone will serve as a finishing material. This will make it possible to choose the color gamut corresponding to the design plan on the decoration of structures.
  • Secondly, it is necessary to make a thorough stripping of the surface of the stones from the soil, construction waste and the engines of organic materials (branches, leaves, etc.) which may disrupt the masonry uniformity, reduce the strength characteristics or spoil the appearance.
  • Thirdly, it should be borne in mind that the bay laying is not a craft, it is an art of akin to the art of the sculptor, so you do not need to put temporary records that can spoil the whole idea. Thoughtful distribution of stones in the laying of the wall or on its surface when finishing will turn the building into the work of art.

Technology of butt masonry

After sorting and cleaning the boob stone, you can start stamps:

  1. Immediately before the start of the masonry, the boot must be thoroughly treated in water, as it may, when contacting with a solution, choose water from it and thereby weaken the solution brand.
  2. The first row of stones need to be laid on the fresh concrete of the foundation (or basement) of the building approximately four hours after the end of laying concrete. This will result in achieving high-quality clutch design of the foundation and wall design.
  3. To ensure a flat wall plane, it is necessary to pull the lace from the angle to the corner of the building. If the building dimensions are large enough, then the entire length of the wall must be divided into 5 - 6 meters in the captures.
  4. After grappling concrete, you can lead the walls of the wall by the traditional "classic" method.
  5. After a number of or two will be posted after the initial setting of the solution on which the stones are laid, it is necessary to produce seams, which will give the wall more accurate and artistic appearance. When opening the seams, it is necessary to remember that holes or recesses should not be formed between the stones, in which water can accumulate or suffer snow. This can lead to the destruction of the wall and the formation of cracks.

Solution

For masonry, it is recommended to use a cement-sandy solution M400 or M500.

For boob stone from granite or diabase, the ratio of the components of the solution should be one part of the cement of no more than two parts of the sand. If the brown stone is made of limestone or sandstone, then the ratio of one part of the cement is three parts of the sand. The solution must be plastic and completely fill all the holes and gaps between the stones.

Tool

For buffet masonry, the same tool is used as for conventional brickwork:

  • Shovel Soviet and bayonge.
  • Master OK.
  • Hammer-cam.
  • Metal manual tamper.
  • Buffes for the preparation of the solution.
  • Cord braced.
  • Level 2 meter.

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